# Exploiting Binaries 2

In this module, we continue to examine the ways that native applications can be exploited and focus on using return-oriented programming (ROP) to achieve that goal. ROP is the process of stitching together existing executable fragments of code ending in a return instruction. By creating chains of addresses of these ‘gadgets’ one can write new programs without introducing any new code.

Keep in mind that you will need to be flexible in identifying methods to exploit programs. Sometimes it’s necessary to abuse a vulnerability multiple times in the course of an exploit. At times, you may only want to use a ROP bridge to make your shellcode executable and, at others, you may want to use a payload written entirely in ROP. Occasionally, the layout of memory makes unorthodox methods of exploitation favorable. For example, have you considered manufacturing an uncontrolled format string vulnerability using ROP?

## Lecture

The lectures this week will discuss return oriented programming (ROP) and code reuse to bypass protections that disallow the execution of attacker-provided data. These lectures go into much greater detail on exploitation and build upon some of what was discussed last week.

## Workshop

Similar to the previous lesson, there are two executable files located in this folder when you clone the repository. Exploits for each of these programs will require the use of return-oriented programming to read the flags. This week, there is no access to source code provided. You will need to reverse engineer the binaries to discovery the vulnerabilities and the techniques required to exploit them. Use the same Ubuntu 14.04 (32-bit) virtual machine as the previous lesson.

Run the bc program. It will listen on port 12345.

### Challenge: space

Run host.sh in the same directory as the space program. It will listen on port 12348.

### Challenge: rop_mixer

Run host.sh in the same directory as the rop_mixer program. It will listen on port 12349.

## Tools

Refer to the tools from last week. If you haven't already, you should become familiar with the binutils suite for *NIX. Tools like readelf, strings, objdump, objcopy, and nm are frequently helpful. Use your package manager and the manpages to install and read about their use.

Several tools exist to aid specifically in the creation of exploits that reuse code. They are more specialized than a standard disassembler because they look for executable snippets of code suitable as ROP gadgets (between instructions, in .rodata, etc).